Are these actual reused railroad ties or just wood cut like railroad ties?
Most actual, re-purposed railroad ties have usually already been treated with creosote. The leaching of this chemical from treated wood is cause for environmental and human safety concerns. On the plus side, such treated wood is usually quite durable, though nothing lasts forever.
Its hard to imagine linseed oil having much additional effect on outdoor, creosote-treated wood, but if the wood is not already treated, linseed oil may be of some help, though it is more commonly used for interior wood surfaces.
Of course, there are many other substances, though what is considered 'organic' or 'environmentally friendly' for coating or preserving wood is likely to be somewhat subjective.