That is so sad that you lot your beautiful tree. I think a flowering tree will start flowering fairly young. If not this spring, probably next spring. It may take some time for it to have very many blossoms depending on how big it is. Good luck, those are such lovely trees. I don't know if there is a way to protect it from extreme weather, but I hope it does well for you.
Cherry blossoms are my absolute favorite tree. I love seeing them bloom in spring and they smell so beautiful. I have seem some very young trees blossom full after only a few years, so you should not have to wait long.